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bf 110 night fighter

Bergstrom, Dikov & Antipov 2006, p.48 and p. 59. sfn error: no target: CITEREFBekker1968 (, invasions of Yugoslavia and Greece in April 1941, Air Force of the Independent State of Croatia, Aces of the Luftwaffe - Major Heinz-Wolfgang Schnaufer, Aces of the Luftwaffe; Heinz-Wolfgang Schnauffer, "VIII Bomber Command 33: 4 February 1943", Aces of the Luftwaffe: Heinz-Wolfgang Schnaufer, Bayerische Flugzeugwerke (BFW) and Messerschmitt, Reich Air Ministry (RLM) aircraft designations,, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, On 11 March 1942 the 6. [7] Other aircraft, such as the Junkers Ju 88 and the Dornier Do 217, also played a big role, but none more so than the Bf 110. On 2 April 1944, the Bf 110 achieved one of its final successful engagements. One of the Bf 110 units assigned to air defence in this sector was Lehrgeschwader 1. 80 Squadron RAF for two losses. It wasn’t until the introduction of the Bf 110 F-4 in the summer of 1942 that the Luftwaffe finally found an effective night fighter. On 23 November 1939, the Bf 110 claimed its first Allied victim when LG 1 Bf 110s engaged and shot down a Morane-Saulnier M.S.406 of the Armée de l'Air over Verdun. The Bf 110 Zerstörerwaffe (Destroyer Force) saw considerable action during operation Operation Weserübung, the invasion of Denmark and Norway. Photo: Bundesarchiv, Bild 101I-377-2801-013 / Jakobsen [Jacobsen] / CC-BY-SA 3.0During the invasion of Poland, Norway, and Denmark, the Zerstörer performed well. See more ideas about messerschmitt, luftwaffe, ww2 aircraft. Its shortcomings were to become its strong points in dealing with the British. The problem was that the Bf 110 was simply too vulnerable against more maneuverable single-engine fighters to survive in a combat environment. A force of 62 attacked a mixed bomber stream of B-17 and B-24s with R4M rockets, destroying five B-17s and three B-24s, as well as a single P-38 Lightning. [9] Actual losses were 11 Wellingtons and six damaged to varying degrees. [44] Schenk was to achieve 18 aerial victory credits on the Zerstorer, and was awarded with Eichenlaub (Oak Leaves) for the Knight's Cross on 30 October 1942. The Bf 110s destroyed 25 Danish military aircraft stationed on the Værløse airbase on 9 April through ground strafing. The Bf 110 force lost 23 of the 77 machines. The Messerschmitt Bf-110 was an early attempt by the Luftwaffe to develop a long range strategic fighter for deep penetration missions. Oberleutnant Johannes Kiel was credited with 62 aircraft destroyed on the ground, plus nine tanks and 20 artillery pieces. [66] The Zerstörer was only to fly as a day fighter against unescorted formations. But the Bf-110 suffered greatly in "close escort," where they were forced to lumber alongside the slow bombers, taking away their tactical edge and forcing them to always respond to the attacking fighters, which were never taken by surprise and could easily avoid the attacks of the Zerstörer, and even turn the tables. One was destroyed by Allied bombing at Zagreb; the other survived and sought sanctuary at Klagenfurt in Austria with other retreating ZNDH aircraft in May 1945. He was killed in action on 11 July 1940, when his Bf 110 was shot down by Hurricanes of No. The final main variant of the Bf 110, the ‘G’ model began to arrive in 1943 (there were a few ‘H’ models, but these simply featured different engines) and this included the Bf 110 G-4, a dedicated night fighter version which featured uprated DB 605B engines and provision for an improved Lichtenstein radar unit. The Aviation Shoppe offers this awesome blueprint of the Bf 110, as shown up above. In the mid-1930s, there was a great deal of interest in the concept of the heavy fighter, namely a fighter aircraft with at least two engines which would give improved survivability in combat as well as possess the ability to carry heavier weapons and have a longer range. This allowed bombers to be targeted in full darkness, but it had a very short range and proved ineffective as an operational interception device. The Zerstörer (Destroyer) entered service with the Luftwaffe in 1937. Lack losses suffered during the Battle of Britain caused the Bf 110 to spend the rest of WWII as night fighter. Several different external fuel tanks, originally a 1,200 L (320 US gal) centerline ventral fuel tank (nicknamed Dackelbauch (dachshund's belly), later 300 L or 900 L (240 US gal) underwing-mounted tanks, resulted in no less than four versions of the Bf 110D. [22], The Bf 110 force also encountered the Swiss Air Force during this period, as several German raids violated Swiss airspace. [35], The Rashid Ali Rebellion and resulting Anglo-Iraqi War saw the Luftwaffe commit 12 of 4./ZG 76's Bf 110s to the Iraqi Nationalist cause as part of "Flyer Command Iraq" (Fliegerführer Irak). The nose of a Lichtenstein radar-equipped Messerschmitt Bf 110G-4 night fighter. In the ensuing dogfight the Zerstorer pilots not only wildly overclaimed 13 victories (when their opponents were only nine) but also misidentified them as "MiG-3", including five claims by experte Theodor Weissenberger. 80 Squadron with 6½ kills. Furthermore, although it had a higher top speed than contemporary RAF Hurricanes, it had poor acceleration. The Bf 109 bested the Bf 110 time and again. P-38 failed abysmally at ETO, having 0.77 to 1 kill ratio. One, a Bf 110 G-4 night fighter that had been surrendered to the Allies in May 1945 at Grove airfield in Denmark, is displayed at RAF Museum London at Hendon in North London, United Kingdom. Messerschmitt Bf 110 Zerstörer (heavy fighter) of the German Luftwaffe. Then, Nachtjaeger units were equipped with Bf 110 D models fitted with a forward-facing, Spanner-Anlage infrared sensor. The Bf 110s flew alone against this formation and destroyed four B-17s, before having the misfortune of running into 56th Fighter Group P-47 Thunderbolts. [43] In total Wessenberger scored his first 21 victories (out of his 175 on the Eastern Front) on the Messerschmitt Bf 110; he would score 33 more in 1945 while flying Me 262 against Western aircraft). On 17 September 1942 the Bf 110Es of the 5./ZG 1 ran into four. Some also featured yet another way of locating RAF bombers. I and II./ZG 26 were deployed to the theatre. The Bf 110 served the Luftwaffe extensively in various roles, though no longer in its intended role as a heavy fighter. Gordon Gollob, future General der Jagdflieger. But Luftwaffe losses were high; 15% of crews were killed in the first three months of 1944. Their Lichtenstein radar was primitive but plenty good enough to hunt down British heavy bombers. German night fighter model lockdown anti boredom project.61 inch wing span,fitted with two OS glow engines,Interesting thing was a successful flying model however it has been in my storage building hanging from the ceiling for a long time so will require some work to fly again,both engines turn with compression.good potential.collection or delivery by me possible It proved so devastatingly effective against British bombers in the winter of 1943/44 that some British raids produced unsupportable levels of casualties. RAF Bomber Command had "nearly burned out". Polish pilots were unfamiliar with the type [1] often identifying them as bombers. Official Luftwaffe doctrine was to attack bombers from the rear and above. Only one month later, ZG 1 and ZG 2 had lost 31 Bf 110s (all to Soviet fighters), plus five more of the recce units to the same cause. Messerschmitt Bf 110 Type: Heavy fighter plane, Zerstörer (destroyer), fighter-bomber, night fighter History: During the 1930s, However, in 1940, the RAF switched from daylight bombing raids against Nazi targets to night bombing. Thanks in part to propaganda encouraged by Göring, these aircraft became regarded as the elite of the German Air Force. Neither. [27], The Battle of Britain revealed the Bf 110's fatal weaknesses as a daylight fighter against single-engine aircraft. This twin-engine fighter has been in the game since the start of the Open Beta Test prior to Update 1.29. "Destroyers in Second World War". (H)/11 and 7. With experience fighting in Norway, efforts were made to extend the combat range of the Bf 110C; these became the Bf 110D Long Range (Langstrecken) Zerstörer. Luftwaffe night fighter ace Heinz-Wolfgang Schnaufer was the highest scorer in the Defence of the Reich campaign and ended the war with 121 aerial victories, virtually all of them achieved while flying examples of the Bf 110. [16] During July, the RAF made several raids on Norway. In 1941, nearly 20% of the Zerstörergeschwader's missions were ground-attack orientated. Their fighters are all single-engined. Messerschmitt Bf 110s were introduced in 1937 as formidable Luftwaffe heavy fighters. the Bf 110 (particularly the version F-4) was lethal. (Z)/JG 5 lost three Bf 110 at the hands of Soviet. It had a range of 1,500 miles (compared to just 400 miles for the Bf 109), it was almost as fast as most single engine fighters, and it was armed with up to four 20mm MG FF cannon plus four MG 17, 7.92mm machine guns in its nose, giving it more firepower than any other contemporary fighter. [11] The raid convinced RAF Bomber Command to consider abandoning the daylight bombing of Germany in favour of night actions. On paper, the Bf 110 certainly looked formidable. (Links change over time; you can also go to in the Messerschmitt Bf 110 G-4, C9 + EN night fighter. [54] Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring insisted that all aircraft, including the night fighter force, would be put into the air to resist these attacks against Germany. Along with the Me 410, it formed the newly rebuilt ZG 26, equipped with three gruppen (two Bf 110 and one Me 410), based near Hannover. The Bf 110 also supported the German defence during Big Week in February 1944, as Lt. Gen. Doolittle's tactical changes for the 8th Air Force's escort fighters (increasingly consisting of P-51 Mustangs) went into effect: The experiences of Zerstörergeschwader "Horst Wessel", a Bf 110 squadron, indicates what happened to twin-engine fighters in the new combat environment. This flaw was exposed during the Battle of Britain, when some Bf 110-equipped units were withdrawn from the battle after very heavy losses and redeployed as night fighters, a role to which the aircraft was well suited. The Bf 110 had demonstrated its capability in a role it was to excel in over Europe. Two RAF Gladiators were claimed by future night fighter ace Martin Drewes, but RAF raids badly damaged two Bf 110s. Dressed in flying gear, he was given a lift into the town centre by a milkman to find suitable quarters for I./Zerstörergeschwader 1's (ZG 1) Bf 110 crews.[12]. Despite help from Bf 109 units, it was the Bf 110 which excelled in the bomber destroyer role. The Bf 110 served with success in the early campaigns in Poland, Norway and France. (Z)/JG 5, achieved an important victory on 10 May 1942 when six of its Bf 110s, which were escorting Ju 88s of the KG 30, ran into a formation of six Soviet SB-2 bombers escorted by nine Hurricanes of the 2 GSAP. [23] This represented 32 percent of the Zerstörerwaffe's initial strength. Beyond the range of fighter escort, Bomber Command discouraged the idea, but the Eighth believed their aircraft would be able to fight their way through to the target. The Bf 110G, was intended for use originally as a fighter-bomber but, it was employed mostly as a night fighter. 21) rocket tubes, with two of these under each outer wing panel, and additional armament, the 110 was vulnerable to Allied escort fighters, partly from the development of a major change in American fighter tactics at the end of 1943, rendering them increasingly vulnerable to developing American air supremacy over the Reich. However, Bf 110s were still being spotted by the tail gunners of British bombers before they could attack. JG 1 again responded, but this time they were joined by 8 Bf 110s of Nachtjagdgeschwader 1. The unit worked up over January and February to operational ready status. The initial raid was against Wilhelmshaven. This page was last edited on 27 December 2020, at 18:45. The enormous Dackelbauch ventral tank, owing to cold weather and limited knowledge of fuel vapours, sometimes exploded, leading to unexplained losses during the North Sea patrols. The Messerschmitt Bf 110, often (erroneously) called Me 110,[1] was a twin-engine heavy fighter (Zerstörer – German for "Destroyer" – a concept that in German service involved a long-ranged, powerful fighter able to range about friendly or even enemy territory destroying enemy bombers and even fighters when located[2]) in the service of the Luftwaffe during World War II. [4], Hermann Göring reportedly ordered the Zerstörerwaffe to make all the Luftwaffe's Bf 110s available for operations. While RAF Bomber Command destroyed Hannover's city centre and 86% of crews dropped their bombs within 5 km (3 mi) of the aiming point, losses were severe. See more ideas about Messerschmitt, Luftwaffe, Ww2 aircraft. About five Bf 110s were shot down by Swiss Bf 109s. The number of Bf 110s on the Eastern Front declined further during and after 1942. [72] These losses were primarily a result of fighter defences, at the heart of which was the Bf 110. [21] By this date, Oberstleutnant Friedrich Vollbracht's ZG 2 had claimed 66 Allied aircraft. Many Nachtjagdgeschwader had taken part in costly daylight battles of attrition. With improved performance and armament, as well as devices which allowed them to find RAF bombers in total darkness, the last version of the Bf 110 became a lethal night fighter. Originally modelled as the Bf 110 C-4, the vehicle was renamed and remodelled into the C-7 in Update 1.79 "Project X". [34] Over Greece, on 20 April, II./ZG 26 claimed five Hurricanes of No. Based in Cairo, Egypt, it was to be deployed to South Africa as part of a program to train pilots on enemy equipment, but it did not make it, crashing in the Sudan. [39] Lastly, in February 1945, two Bf 110G-4s were supplied to the Air Force of the Independent State of Croatia (ZNDH). Stanket and E.J. Eduard first released their excellent 1/72 scale Messerschmitt Bf 110 G-4 night fighter in 2013. [20] However, this was tempered by the loss of nine Bf 110s against the RAF on 15 May. Between 16 and 17 August, 23 more were lost.[30]. [73], The Phoney War and the "Battle of German Bight", North Africa, the Mediterranean and Middle East. Bergstrom, Christer & Dikov, Andrey & Aptipov, Vladislav. Introduced in 1937, the Bf 110 saw consistent service over all of the fronts involving German forces and its allies. Between 11 and 13 May, most of the 82 aerial claims over Belgium were made by the Bf 110 equipped ZG 26. It was also intended as a long range escort for bombers, as an interceptor against enemy bomber formations, and as a light bomber and ground attack aircraft. It was in the role as a night fighter, often armed with the surprisingly effective Schräge Musik upward-firing twin autocannon offensive armament installation, that the Bf 110 and its pilots achieved their greatest successes. As over Switzerland in 1940, the battles ended in their opponent's favor. Bf 110G series With the failure of the Messerschmitt Me 210 series, and a shortage of Ju 88 airframes, the Luftwaffe was forced to retain the Bf 110 in front-live service primarily as a night-fighter, and in 1942 the Daimler Benz DB 605B-1 engine was installed to produce the Bf 110G series. Falck's unit, I./ZG 76, claimed 31 kills during the campaign, of which 19 were confirmed. Many RAF crews witnessed a sudden explosion of a friendly aircraft, but assumed, in some cases, it was very accurate flak. [26][2], Hermann Göring's nephew, Hans-Joachim Göring, was a pilot with III./Zerstörergeschwader 76, flying the Messerschmitt Bf 110. The design excelled at "high escort" where Bf-110 squadrons were sent well ahead of the bombers to clear the skies of enemy aircraft, using their speed and firepower advantages in diving attacks to counter the enemy's maneuverability, then breaking contact and climbing away,[28] what the Americans would later call "Boom-and-Zoom." The fighter would generally target engines or fuel tanks if possible since firing directly into the bomb bay produced such a huge explosion that there was a risk of the attacker being damaged. The B-17s brushed the defenses aside and delivered their loads on Wilhelmshaven, while suffering the loss of 3 aircraft. [59] On such missions USAAF bombers were afforded limited protection by American fighters, which did not yet have sufficient range to escort the bombers all the way to and from the target on deeper raids. [32] The Bf-110 was an effective, highly versatile twin-engined aircraft. We have had the option of the Mauve kit (based on the old Fujimi Bf 110 C), and Monogram's Bf 110 G-4 in 1/48 scale until now. Messerschmitt Bf 110 of LG1 in flight, July 1940 Messerschmitt Bf 110 Zerstörer (Destroyer) was a twin-engine heavy fighter / night fighter developed in Germany in the 1930s and used by the Luftwaffe and others during World War II. Six minutes later three more took off to join the first group. During this campaign, Victor Mölders, brother of the famous Werner Mölders, took the official surrender of the town of Aalborg after landing at the local airfield. [23][24] The remaining Bf 110s strafed the airfield and helped the ground troops take it; the air support provided by the Zerstörer was instrumental, and it was to perform well as a fighter-bomber in the coming campaigns. Read another story from us: 5 Messerschmitt Fighter Planes of WWII. These radars were able to give the target’s altitude and speed and were accurate enough to guide the fighter to within 500m of a bomber, by which time the Bf 110s Liechtenstein radar would be able to lock on. Creek. A sight was inset in the top of the canopy, and the ammunition was modified so that all rounds left a faint, glowing trail. [40][41], Just 51 air worthy Bf 110s took part in the initial rounds of Operation Barbarossa, and all were from three units; ZG 26, Schnellkampfgeschwader 210 (redesignated from Erprobungsgruppe 210) and ZG 76. Later on, there were dedicated ground attack versions which proved reasonably successful. We flew these missions at no greater than Schwarm strength, and were ourselves never escorted. However, on 4 and 27 September, 15 Bf 110s were lost on each day. It is not clear if they managed to shoot down any of their attackers.[62]. Schnaufer was shot in the leg while attacking a Halifax that night, after which he made his only belly landing during the war. FirstLook Hot on the heels of their 1/48 scale Messerschmitt Bf 110 G-2, Eduard has now released the night-fighter variant - the Bf 110 G-4. Oberleutnant Alfred Wehmeyer scored three nocturnal kills against Allied bombers in the space of a week. [53], In January 1943 the Eighth Air Force began taking their daylight operations into Germany. The wastage and woeful deployment of the type prevented any lasting success. For example, Heinz-Wolfgang Schnaufer, one of the Luftwaffe’s leading night fighter aces, was flying a Bf 110 G-4 equipped with Schraege Musik canon and Liechtenstein radar when he attacked a stream of British Lancaster bombers on the night of 21st February 1945. [13] They just sit on the ground, GLARING at eachother, possibly barking. The Bf 110's lack of agility in the air was its primary weakness. [29], The worst day of the battle for the Bf 110 was 15 August 1940, when nearly 30 Bf 110s were shot down, the equivalent of an entire Gruppe. The Bf 110 G-2 is a textbook example of what classifies a twin-engined fighter. By April 1944, the Oberkommando der Luftwaffe had hoped to convert the Bf 110 Geschwader to the Me 410. The photo has been taken by war reporters of the 5th Luftwaffe in Oslo1940.Photo: Pilz CC BY-SA 4.0 However the fortunes for the mostly Bf 110 equipped force turned during late August/September 1943. This book concentrates on the career of the Bf 110 as a daylight fighter. Replacements were not keeping pace with losses. The World War I-era Bristol Fighter had done well with a rear gunner firing a rifle-caliber machine gun, but by World War II, this was insufficient to deter the eight-gun fighters facing the Bf 110. The handling characteristics were also affected; the Bf 110 was not manoeuvrable to begin with and the added weight made it worse. The losses had "marked the beginning of the end of the Bf 110 Zerstörer as a first-line weapon in the RLV". The B-17s brushed the defenses aside and delivered their loads on Wilhelmshaven, while suffering the loss of 3.. Destroyer '' after which he made his only belly landing during the of. 2 % to 9.8 % lacked the agility of the Reich, they were by... [ 20 ] however, after the 18 August there was nothing left to meet had long! System, a number of Bf 110 's lack of maneuverability was not an issue early on as were! Performed well when it encountered mostly British bombers in the desert the …:... Official Luftwaffe doctrine was to excel in over Europe forces and its allies effective highly. To become its strong points in dealing with the destruction of a friendly aircraft, but RAF raids damaged! Schnaufer was shot down by Swiss Bf 109s and suddenly, the Zerstörergruppen were recalled from their Eastern Mediterranean! 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